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Charles W. Greer


Membre collaborateur

Département des sciences des ressources naturelles, Université McGill

National Research Council of Canada 6100 Royalmount Ave.
Québec, Canada
H4P 2R2






Thèmes de recherche

  • Diversité microbienne et suivi des changements de structure et fonctions dans des environnements naturels et contaminés
  • Écologie microbienne et activité des bactéries dans la dégradation des polluants organiques
  • Metagénomique environnementale
  • Technologies de bio-remédiation pour le traitement de sols et d'eaux contaminés

Communications scientifiques

Altshuler, I., Raymond-Bouchard, I., Magnuson, E., Tremblay, J., Greer, C.W., Whyte, L., 2022. Unique high Arctic methane metabolizing community revealed through in situ 13CH4-DNA-SIP enrichment in concert with genome binning. Scientific Reports, 12, 1160. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-04486-z.

Cao, Y., Zhang, B., Cai, Q., Zhu, Z., Liu, B., Dong, G., Greer, C.W., Lee, K., Chen, B., 2022. Responses of Alcanivorax species to marine alkanes and polyhydroxybutyrate plastic pollution: Importance of the ocean hydrocarbon cycles. Environmental Pollution, 313, 120177. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120177.

Abou Khalil, C., Fortin, N., Prince, R.C., Greer, C.W., Lee, K., Boufadel, M.C., 2021. Crude oil biodegradation in upper and supratidal seashores. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 416, 125919. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125919.

Abou Khalil, C., Prince, V.L., Prince, R.C., Greer, C.W., Lee, K., Zhang, B., Boufadel, M.C., 2021. Occurrence and biodegradation of hydrocarbons at high salinities. Science of the Total Environment, 762, 143165. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143165.

Bergsveinson, J., Lawrence, J.R., Schebel, A., Wasserscheid, J., Roy, J., Conly, F.M., Sanschagrin, S., Korber, D.R., Tremblay, J., Greer, C.W., Droppo, I.G., 2021. Impact of sample collection on prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity of niche environments of the oil-sand mining impacted Athabasca River. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 67(11): 813-826. DOI: 10.1139/cjm-2021-0058.

Cai, Q., Zhu, Z., Chen, B., Lee, K., Nedwed, T.J., Greer, C.W., Zhang, B., 2021. A cross-comparison of biosurfactants as marine oil spill dispersants: Governing factors, synergetic effects and fates. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 416, 126122. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126122.

Cao, Y., Zhang, B., Zhu, Z., Rostami, M., Dong, G., Ling, J., Lee, K., Greer, C.W., Chen, B., 2021. Access-dispersion-recovery strategy for enhanced mitigation of heavy crude oil pollution using magnetic nanoparticles decorated bacteria. Bioresource Technology, 337, 125404. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125404.

Celikkol, S., Fortin, N., Tromas, N., Andriananjamanantsoa, H., Greer, C.W., 2021. Bioavailable nutrients (N and P) and precipitation patterns drive cyanobacterial blooms in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain. Microorganisms, 9(10), 2097. DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms9102097.

Lofthus, S., Bakke, I., Greer, C.W., Brakstad, O.G., 2021. Biodegradation of weathered crude oil by microbial communities in solid and melted sea ice. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 172(112823). DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112823.

Quiza, L., Tremblay, J., Greer, C.W., Hemmingsen, S.M., St-Arnaud, M., Pozniak, C.J., Yergeau, E., 2021. Rhizosphere shotgun metagenomic analyses fail to show differences between ancestral and modern wheat genotypes grown under low fertilizer inputs. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 97(6), fiab071. DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiab071.

Schreiber, L., Fortin, N., Tremblay, J., Wasserscheid, J., Sanschagrin, S., Mason, J., Wright, C.A., Spear, D., Johannessen, S.C., Greer, C.W., Robinson, B., King, T., Lee, K., 2021. In situ microcosms deployed at the coast of British Columbia (Canada) to study dilbit weathering and associated microbial communities under marine conditions. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 97(7), fiab082. DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiab082.

Solliec, M., Roy-Lachapelle, A., Storck, V., Callender, K.L., Greer, C.W., Barbeau, B., 2021. A data-independent acquisition approach based on HRMS to explore the biodegradation process of organic micropollutants involved in a biological ion-exchange drinking water filter. Chemosphere, 277, 130216. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130216.

Bergsveinson, J., Roy, J., Maynard , C., Sanschagrin, S., Freeman, C.N., Swerhone, G.D.W., Dynes, J.J., Tremblay, J., Greer, C.W., Korber, D.R., Lawrence, J.R., 2020. Metatranscriptomic insights into the response of river biofilm communities to ionic and nano-zinc oxide exposures. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11, 267. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00267.

Cederwall, J., Black, T.A., Blais, J.M., Hanson, M.L., Hollebone, B.P., Palace, V.P., Rodriguez-Gil, J.L., Greer, C.W., Maynard, C., Ortmann, A.C., Rooney, R.C., Orihel, D.M., 2020. Life under an oil slick: response of a freshwater food web to simulated spills of diluted bitumen in field mesocosms. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 77(5): 779-788. DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2019-0224.

Edge, T.A., Baird, D.J., Bilodeau, G., Gagné, N., Greer, C.W., Konkin, D., Newton, G., Séguin, A., Beaudette, L., Bilkhu, S., Bush, A., Chen, W., Comte, J., Condie, J., Crevecoeur, S., El-Kayssi, N., Emilson, E.J.S., Fancy, D.-L., Kandalaft, I., Khan, I.U.H., King, I., Kreutzweiser, D., Lapen, D., Lawrence, J., Lowe, C., Lung, O., Martineau, C., Meier, M., Odgen, N., Paré, D., Phillips, L., Porter, T.M., Sachs, J., Staley, Z., Steeves, R., Venier, L., Veres, T., Watson, C., Watson, S., Macklin, J., 2020. The Ecobiomics project: Advancing metagenomics assessment of soil health and freshwater quality in Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 710, 135906. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135906.

Element, G., Engel, K., Neufeld, J.D., Casselman, J.M., van Coeverden de Groot, P., Greer, C.W., Walker, V.K., 2020. Seasonal habitat drives intestinal microbiome composition in anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Environmental Microbiology, 22(8): 3112-3125. DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.15049.

Gagnon, V., Rodrigue-Morin, M., Migneault, M., Tardif, A., Garneau, L., Lalonde, S., Shipley, B., Bellenger, J.-P., Greer, C.W., Roy, S., 2020. Survival, growth and element translocation by 4 plant species growing on acidogenic gold mine tailings in Québec. Ecological Engineering, 151, 105855. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2020.105855.

Gagnon, V., Rodrigue-Morin, M., Tardif, A., Beaudin, J., Greer, C.W., Shipley, B., Bellenger, J.-P., Roy, S., 2020. Differences in elemental composition of tailings, soils, and plant tissues following five decades of native plant colonization on a gold mine site in Northwestern Québec. Chemosphere, 250, 126243. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126243.

Gagnon, V., Rodrigue-Morin, M., Tremblay, J., Champagne, J., Wasserscheid, J., Bellenger, J.-P., Greer, C.W., Roy, S., 2020. Life in mine tailings: microbial population structure across the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and roots of boreal species colonizing mine tailings in northwestern Québec. Annals of Microbiology, 70, 41. DOI: 10.1186/s13213-020-01582-9.

Gagnon, V., Rodrigue-Morin, M., Tremblay, J., Wasserscheid, J., Champagne, J., Bellenger, J.-P., Greer, C.W., Roy, S., 2020. Vegetation drives the structure of active microbial communities on an acidogenic mine tailings deposit. PeerJ, 8, e10109. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10109.

Johannesson, S.C., Greer, C.W., Hannah, C.G., King, T.L., Lee, K., Pawlowicz, R., Wright, C.A., 2020. Fate of diluted bitumen spilled in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 150, 110691. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110691.

Péquin, B., Tremblay, J., Maynard, C., Wasserscheid, J., Greer, C.W., 2020. Draft whole-genome sequence of the alkane-synthesizing polar cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena biceps strain O-153. Microbiology Resource Announcements, 9(47), e00904-20. DOI: 10.1128/MRA.00904-20.

Altshuler, I., Ronholm, J., Layton, A., Onstott, T.C., Greer, C.W., Whyte, L., 2019. Denitrifiers, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and N2O soil gas flux in high Arctic ice-wedge polygon cryosols. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 95(5), fiz049. DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiz049.

Chan-Yam, K., Goordial, J., Greer, C.W., Davila, A., McKay, C.P., Whyte, L., 2019. Microbial activity and habitability of an Antarctic dry Vvalley water track. Astrobiology, 19(6): 757-770. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2018.1884.

Jugnia, L.-B., Manno, D., Dodard, S., Greer, C.W., Hendry, M., 2019. Manipulating redox conditions to enhance in situ bioremediation of RDX in groundwater at a contaminated site. Science of the Total Environment, 676: 368-377. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.045.

Pagé, A.P., Tremblay, J., Masson, L., Greer, C.W., 2019. Nitrogen- and phosphorus-starved Triticum aestivum show distinct belowground microbiome profiles. PLoS one, 14(2), e0210538. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210538.

Pérez-Carrascal, O.M., Terrat, Y., Giani, A., Fortin, N., Greer, C.W., Tromas, N., Shapiro, B.J., 2019. Coherence of Microcystis species revealed through population genomics. ISME Journal, 13: 2887–2900. DOI: 10.1038/s41396-019-0481-1.

Schreiber, L., Fortin, N., Tremblay, J., Wasserscheid, J., Elias, M., Mason, J., Sanschagrin, S., Cobanli, S., King, T.L., Lee, K., Greer, C.W., 2019. Potential for microbially mediated natural attenuation of diluted bitumen on the coast of British Columbia (Canada). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85(10), e00086-19. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00086-19.

Tremblay, J., Fortin, N., Elias, M., Wasserscheid, J., King, T.L., Lee, K., Greer, C.W., 2019. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic responses of natural oil degrading bacteria in the presence of dispersants. Environmental Microbiology, 21(7): 2307-2319. DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.14609.

Tremblay, J., Greer, C.W., 2019. Metagenomic data mining in oil spill studies. Pages 211-223 dans Moo-Young, M. (Éditeur). Comprehensive Biotechnology, Volume 6: Environmental and Related Biotechnologies. Elsevier.

Vergeynst, L., Greer, C.W., Mosbech, A., Gustavson, K., Meire, L., Poulson, K.G., Christensen, J.H., 2019. Biodegradation, photo-oxidation, and dissolution of petroleum compounds in an arctic fjord during summer. Environmental Science & Technology, 53(21): 12197-12206. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b03336.

Lay, C.-Y., Bell, T., Hamel, C., Harker, K.N., Mohr, R., Greer, C.W., Yergeau, E., St-Arnaud, M., 2018. Canola root–associated microbiomes in the Canadian Prairies. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, 1188. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01188.

Raymond-Bouchard, I., Tremblay, J., Altshuler, I., Greer, C.W., Whyte, L., Shapiro, N., 2018. Comparative transcriptomics of cold growth and adaptive features of a eury- and steno-psychrophile. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, 1565. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01565.

Stefani, F., Isabel, N., Morency, M.-J., Lamothe, M., Nadeau, S., Lachance, D., Li, E.H.Y., Greer, C.W., Yergeau, E., Pinno, B.D., Séguin, A., 2018. The impact of reconstructed soils following oil sands exploitation on aspen and its associated belowground microbiome. Scientific Reports, 8, 2761. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-20783-6.

Tromas, N., Taranu, Z.E., Martin, B.D., Willis, A., Fortin, N., Greer, C.W., Shapiro, B.J., 2018. Niche separation increases with genetic distance among bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, 438. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00438.

Yergeau, E., Tremblay, J., Joly, S., Labrecque, M., Maynard, C., Pitre, F.E., St-Arnaud, M., Greer, C.W., 2018. Soil contamination alters the willow root and rhizosphere metatranscriptiome and the root - rhizosphere interactome. ISME Journal(12): 869-884. DOI: 10.1038/s41396-017-0018-4 .

Goordial, J., Davila, A., Greer, C.W., Cannam, R., DiRuggiero, J., McKay, C.P., Whyte, L., 2017. Comparative activity and functional ecology of permafrost soils and lithic niches in a hyper-arid polar desert. Environmental Microbiology, 19(2): 443-458. DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.13353.

Greer, C.W., Juck, D.F., 2017. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon spills in cold terrestrial environments. Pages 645-660 dans Margesin, R. (Éditeur). Psychrophiles: From Biodiversity to Biotechnology. Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-57057-0.

Jugnia, L.B., Beaumier, D., Holdner, J., Delisle, S., Greer, C.W., Hendry, M., 2017. Enhancing the potential for in situ bopremediation of RDX contaminated soil from a former military demolition range . Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 26(11): 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/15320383.2017.1410097 .

Tremblay, J., Yergeau, E., Fortin, N., Cobanli, S.E., Elias, M., King, T.L., Lee, K., Greer, C.W., 2017. Chemical dispersants enhance the activity of oil and gas condensate - degrading marine bacteria. ISME Journal, 11(12): 2793-2808. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2017.129 .

Tromas, N., Fortin, N., Bedrani, L., Terrat, Y., Cardoso, P., Bird, D., Greer, C.W., Shapiro, B.J., 2017. Characterising and predicting cyanobacterial blooms in an 8-year amplicon sequencing time course. ISME Journal, 11(8): 1746-1763. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2017.58.

Yergeau, E., Michel, C., Julien, T., Niemi, A., King, T.L., Wyglinski, J., Lee, K., Greer, C.W., 2017. Metagenomic survey of the taxonomic and functional microbial communities of seawater and sea ice from the Canadian Arctic. Scientific Reports, 7: 42242. DOI: 10.1038/srep42242.

Beaudoin-Nadeau, M., Gagné, A., Bissonnette, C., Bélanger, P.-A., Fortin, A., Roy, S., Greer, C.W., Khasa, D., 2016. Performance of ectomycorrhizal alders exposed to specific Canadian oil sands tailing stressors under in vivo bipartite symbiotic conditions. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 62(7): 543-549. DOI: 10.1139/cjm-2015-0703.

Callender, K.L., Roy, S., Khasa, D., Whyte, L., Greer, C.W., 2016. Actinorhizal alder phytostabilization alters microbial community dynamics in gold mine waste rock from Northern Quebec: a greenhouse study. PLoS one, 11(2): e0150181. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150181.

Garneau, M.-È., Michel, C., Meisterhans, G., Fortin, N., King, T.L., Greer, C.W., Lee, K., 2016. Hydrocarbon biodegradation by Arctic sea-ice and sub-ice microbial communities during microcosm experiments, Northwest Passage (Nunavut, Canada). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 92(10). DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiw130.

Goordial, J., Davila, A., Lacelle, D., Pollard, W., Marinova, M.M., Greer, C.W., DiRuggiero, J., McKay, C.P., Whyte, L., 2016. Nearing the cold-arid limits of microbial life in permafrost of an upper dry valley, Antarctica. ISME Journal, 10: 1613-1624. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2015.239.

Goordial, J., Raymond-Bouchard, I., Riley, R., Ronholm, J., Shapiro, N., Woyke, T., LaButti, K.M., Tice, H., Amirebrahimi, M., Grigoriev, I.V., Greer, C.W., Bakermans, C., Whyte, L., 2016. Improved high-quality draft genome sequence of the eurypsychrophile Rhodotorula sp. JG1b, isolated from permafrost in the hyperarid upper-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Genome Announcements, 4(2): e00069-16. DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00069-16.

Goordial, J., Raymond-Bouchard, I., Zolotarov, Y., de Bethencourt, L., Ronholm, J., Shapiro, N., Woyke, T., Stromvik, M., Greer, C.W., Bakermans, C., Whyte, L., 2016. Cold adaptive traits revealed by comparative genomic analysis of the eurypsychrophile Rhodococcus sp. JG3 isolated from high elevation McMurdo Dry Valley permafrost, Antarctica. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 92(2): fiv154. DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiv154.

Lévesque, B., Gervais, M.-C., Chevalier, P., Gauvin, D., Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, E., Gingras, S., Fortin, N., Brisson, G., Greer, C.W., Bird, D., 2016. Exposure to cyanobacteria: acute health effects associated with endotoxins. Public Health, 134: 98-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.11.027.

Tardif, S., Yergeau, E., Tremblay, J., Legendre, P., Whyte, L., Greer, C.W., 2016. The willow microbiome is influenced by soil petroleum-hydrocarbon concentration with plant compartment-specific effects. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7(14): 1363. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01363.

Auffret, M., Yergeau, E., Labbé, D., Fayolle-Guichard, F., Greer, C.W., 2015. Importance of Rhodococcus strains in a bacterial consortium degrading a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 99(5): 2419-2430. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-014-6159-8.

Bell, T., Greer, C.W., Yergeau, E., 2015. Metagenomics Potential for Bioremediation. Pages 429-439 dans Nelson, K.E. (Éditeur). Encyclopedia of Metagenomics. Genes, Genomes and Metagenomes: Basics, Methods, Databases and Tools. Springer US. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4899-7478-5_123.

Fortin, N., Munoz-Ramos, V., Bird, D., Lévesque, B., Whyte, L., Greer, C.W., 2015. Toxic cyanobacterial bloom triggers in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, as determined by next-generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Life, 5: 1346-1380. DOI: 10.3390/life5021346.

Lamarche-Gagnon, G., Comery, R., Greer, C.W., Whyte, L., 2015. Evidence of in situ microbial activity and sulphidogenesis in perennially sub-0 °C and hypersaline sediments of a high arctic permafrost spring. Extremophiles, 19(1): 1-15. DOI: 10.1007/s00792-014-0703-4.

Maghsoudi, E., Fortin, N., Greer, C.W., Duy, S.V., Fayad, P., Sauvé, S., Prévost, M., Dorner, S., 2015. Biodegradation of multiple microcystins and cylindrospermopsin in clarifier sludge and a drinking water source: Effects of particulate attached bacteria and phycocyanin. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 120: 409-417. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.06.001.

Pagé, A.P., Yergeau, E., Greer, C.W., 2015. Salix purpurea stimulates the expression of specific bacterial xenobiotic degradation genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. PLoS one, 10(7): e0132062. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132062.

Yergeau, E., Bell, T., Champagne, J., Maynard, C., Tardif, S., Tremblay, J., Greer, C.W., 2015. Transplanting soil microbiomes leads to lasting effects on willow growth, but not on the rhizosphere microbiome. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6(1436). DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01436.

Yergeau, E., Maynard, C., Sanschagrin, S., Champagne, J., Juck, D., Lee, K., Greer, C.W., 2015. Microbial community composition, functions and activities in the Gulf of Mexico, one year after the Deepwater Horizon accident. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 81(17): 5855-5866. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01470-15.

Yeung, C.W., Lee, K., Cobanli, S., King, T., Bugden, J., Whyte, L., Greer, C.W., 2015. Characterization of the microbial community structure and the physicochemical properties of produced water and seawater from the Hibernia oil production platform. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(22): 17697-17715. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4947-z.

Zappelini, C., Battle, K., Foulon, J., Lacercat-Didier, L., Maillard, F., Valot, B., Blaudez, D., Cazaux, D., Gilbert, D., Yergeau, E., Greer, C.W., Chalot, M., 2015. Diversity and complexity of microbial communities from a chlor-alkali tailings dump. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 90: 101-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.08.008.

Allan, J., Ronholm, J., Mykytczuk, N.C.S., Whyte, L., Onstott, T.C., Greer, C.W., 2014. Methanogen community composition and rates of methane consumption in Canadian High Arctic permafrost soils. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 6(2): 136-144. DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12139.

Bissonnette, C., Fahlman, B., Peru, K.M., Khasa, D.P., Greer, C.W., Headley, J.V., Roy, S., 2014. Symbiosis with Frankia sp. benefits the establishment of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa and Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in tailings sand from the Canadian oil sands industry. Ecological Engineering, 68: 167–175. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.03.061.

Frank-Fahle, B., Yergeau, E., Greer, C.W., Lantuit, H., Wagner, D., 2014. Microbial functional potential and community composition in permafrost-affected soils of the NW canadian Arctic. PLoS one, 9(1): e84761. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084761.

Khasa, D., Baudoin-Nadeau, M., Roy, S., Greer, C.W., 2014. Phytobial remediation of Sigma-Lamaque Gold Mine waste lands in Val-d’Or, Québec. Canadian Reclamation, 14: 36-39.

Lévesque, B., Gervais, M.-C., Chevalier, P., Gauvin, D., Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, E., Gingras, S., Fortin, N., Brisson, G., Greer, C.W., Bird, D., 2014. Prospective study of acute health effects in relation to exposure to cyanobacteria. Science of the Total Environment, 466-467: 397-403. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.045.

Martineau, C., Pan, Y., Bodrossy, L., Yergeau, E., Whyte, L., Greer, C.W., 2014. Atmospheric methane oxidizers are present and active in Canadian high Arctic soils. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 89(2): 257-269. DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12287.

Yergeau, E., Sanschagrin, S., Maynard, C., St-Arnaud, M., Greer, C.W., 2014. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination. ISME Journal, 8: 344-358. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2013.163.

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